DECC staff is wonderful – attended to every need!


Our professional staff’s commitment to service at the DECC is to provide our clients, exhibitors and guests with an experience that goes above and beyond their expectations. We take pride in our facility and the community it represents and understand our role in bringing people to Cincinnati and helping them experience all the great things the city has to offer. The information presented in this Service Guide has been designed to assist in acclimating you to our facility by identifying DECC standard operating procedures. This guide serves as a written resource providing value to you in planning your event.


No adhesive, tape, tacks, nails, glue, epoxy, etc., can be used to affix items to doors, tables, walls, windows, etc., in any location at the Duke Energy Concention Center. Damages and/or repair labor created by utilizing adhesives will be billed to Licensee.

Advertising, Publicity, Promotions

All advertising copy for ticketed events held in the DECC must be forwarded to the DECC Marketing Manager for review. Copies of the official DECC logo can be obtained from your Sales Manager or the DECC Marketing Manager for reproduction and inclusion in your literature. Please forward a copy of all event advertising to the DECC Marketing Manager to ensure the correct logo and information. For interior and exterior advertising opportunities for your event, including electronic signage, banners, and website advertising or advertising packages, contact your DECC Event Manager.

Air Conditioning (HVAC Requests) or Heating

As full-time practitioners of energy conservation air conditioning and/or heat is provided to occupied spaces during your licensed event day(s) show hours only. If you choose to have air conditioning/heat during non-show hours, additional charges will be applied at prevailing rates.

• Exhibit Hall A-B-C (per hall)
• Grand Ballroom A or B (per ballroom)
• Junior Ballroom A-B-C-D (per ballroom)
• Second Floor Meeting Rooms (any or all) Please communicate your requests to your Event Manager; who will provide the cost specific to the space requested. It would be imperative to keep all access doors closed for the A/C or heat to function correctly and to conserve energy in the exhibit halls.

Alcohol Consumption

The consumption of alcoholic beverages is restricted to the licensed area and only during times when Spectra Food and Beverage concession stands are open and operational or as ordered through your catering contract via the exclusive in-house food and beverage provider (Spectra Food and Beverage). Alcohol sales close (30) thirty minutes prior to the end of show times. To ensure safety, alcohol consumption is not permitted during designated ingress/egress times. No outside alcohol may be brought onto DECC property without written consent and approval from the General Manager.


Animals or pets, with the exception of ADA Service Animals, are not permitted inside the DECC except as an approved exhibit or activity. The request for approval for such animals to be on premises must be received in writing in advance (a minimum of 3 business days) and be approved by the DECC General Manager or designee. The ADA defines a service animal as any guide dog, signal dog, or miniature horse (subject to certain limitations) that has been trained to provide assistance to an individual with a disability. If they meet this definition, animals are considered service animals under the ADA, regardless of whether they have been licensed or certified by state or local government. Animals which are trained to assist with psychiatric conditions are recognized as service animals. Animals whose sole function is to provide emotional support are not recognized as service animals by the ADA. Service animals have the same right of access and can only be excluded for two reasons: 1. The animal is out of control and the handler does not take effective action to control it; or 2. The animal is not housebroken. The handler would be given the opportunity to attend the event without the service animal


The Duke Energy Convention Center has four ATMs within the facility (current agreement with PNC Bank):

• 5th Street and Elm Street Main Lobby Entrance (across from Espresso café) (permanent location)
• Exhibit Hall A – North Low Bay – Next to Angus Beef Concession Stand (mobile unit)
• Exhibit Hall B – North Low bay – Next to Panini 525 Concession Stand (mobile unit)
• Exhibit Hall C – Southwest Corner – Next to Concession Stand (mobile unit) O. There is a $3.00 service fee per transaction for non PNC Bankers on Mobile ATM units may be relocated at the discretion of the DECC. Additional ATMs may be permitted to be brought into the facility by Licensee at the discretion of the DECC and require written approval from your Event Manager. 

Audio/Visual Services

The Duke Energy Convention Center has a partnership with Prestige Audio Visual and Creative Services to serve as the in-house preferred audio visual provider. Prestige A/V offers concert quality sound, full lighting design and video packages to meet any budget and show demand. Prestige A/V can handle any variety of needs from basic meeting room requests to complex services for large multi-media shows. For price quotes and detailed information pertaining to your specific needs, or to speak with a Prestige A/V representative, please contact your Event Manager/Sales Manager. By contracting with Prestige A/V, you will not only receive excellent audio visual service, you will be eligible for cost saving incentives on your DECC master bill. Cost savings incentives may include discounted audio patch fees, rigging point fee discounts, or power package discounts. Should your event choose to utilize a third party A/V provider, you will not receive the cost saving incentives. It is important to notify your Event Manager if you choose to use a third party A/V company to ensure that their ingress/egress and electrical requirements can be coordinated in advance.


The Duke Energy Convention Center has pre-approved areas for banner hanging inside and outside the facility that will not block site lines to any permanent facility directional signage, artwork or advertising. Please contact your Event Manager to receive authorization and weight restrictions to hang banners.


No helium filled balloons are permitted inside the facility without written permission of the Duke Energy Convention Center General Manager or designee. If permission is granted Hi-Float liquid is not permitted to be utilized to assist balloons to float longer. If helium balloons are utilized and escape to ceiling rafters, a $100 per balloon retrieval fee will be applied to the final master invoice. Safety hazards are created when Facility personnel are required to use a lift to retrieve stray balloons that become entangled in the Facility structure.

Bicycle Parking

Non-secured bicycle racks for parking bicycles are available outside the facility at the 5th Street and Elm Street Entrance – it’s not just a bike rack, it’s officially a work of art! Bicycles are not permitted inside the facility.

Broadcasting Rights / Recording

The Duke Energy Convention Center reserves the right to videotape and record events for its own records, publicity and promotional purposes. The Licensee may not engage in any broadcasting, telecasting, videotaping, audio recording or transcription activity, without written permission from the DECC General Manager, provided all such recording is for business associated with the stated event functions. The Licensee is responsible for all costs associated with such broadcast and/or recording rights. The Licensee shall make all arrangements of such recording and notify the Event Manager in writing. Prestige A/V is capable of recording sound in meeting rooms and ballrooms via house sound. Please contact your Event Manager to obtain specific capabilities and a cost estimate from Prestige A/V for these services.

Businesses (Retail Outlets) located within the DECC

Espresso Café – We proudly brew Starbucks Coffee at the 5th Street and Elm Street location O. Generally, Espresso Café will be operational when there are 500 or more guests in the building.

• LaRosa’s Pizza -a traditional Cincinnati West Side staple for 50+ years - Exhibit Hall B
• Skyline Chili – serving Cincinnati Chili and cheese coneys inside Exhibit Hall B
• There are an additional (3) three concession stands throughout the exhibit space.
• Special Note: Hours of operation for any of the concession stands are determined by Spectra Food and Beverage management with recommendations based on demographics provided by show management. 

Cables / Cords

All electrical or audio visual cables must be secured and matted with approved gaffers tape or cable ramps to comply with safety standards and Cincinnati Fire Code. Cables or cords are not permitted to be laid on the floor in front of entrance or emergency exit doors; under doorways or through windows; or designated aisles. Third party service providers who install their own cables or cords and appropriate matting will be inspected and approved by DECC staff to ensure the installation is in compliance with all safety standards.

Cancellations (Building Space or Staffing)

Please refer to the appropriate section of your License Agreement (contractual agreement) for details pertaining to cancellations of building space. Should you have any questions or require clarification, please contact your Sales Manager.

Event staffing cancellations require 72 hours notice (excluding holidays); otherwise a minimum charge of four hours per staff person scheduled will be incurred. Cancellations during shifts will result in charges for the balance of each shift. Special rates for overtime and statutory holidays may apply.

Candles / Votives / Open Flames

Candles, votives or any item creating an open flame are not permitted inside the DECC without written consent. Request for written approval is required to be submitted a minimum of 72 hours prior to your contracted date to your Event Manager in order to request approval from the Cincinnati Fire Department. Cincinnati Fire Specialist may be required on-site and will be billed to the master invoice at prevailing rates.

Catering Sales Manager

If you would like to order food and beverage or concessions for your event, you will be assigned an Spectra Food and Beverage Catering Sales Manager to assist you with menu selection and logistics of your Food and Beverage setup and service. The Catering Sales Manager will work in unison with your Event Manager to confirm setup / service logistics and illustrate food and beverage equipment on facility floor plans.

Changeovers / Room Flips or Turns

The DECC will provide a one-time standard room setup per your License Agreement inside meeting rooms and ballrooms. A request to add or remove equipment (flip/reset) or a request for a change (changeover) to the first room setup will be subject to labor fees and/or the cost of additional equipment at prevailing rates:

• Advanced Rate – request made at least 14 days in advance of the first contracted day o $20 per hour per laborer (4 hour minimums apply)
• Floor Rate – Request made less than 14 days in advance of the first contracted day of $30 per hour per laborer (4 hour minimums apply). Subject to staffing availability (we will make every effort to accommodate)
• Overtime / Holiday rate – Request made for overtime or statutory holidays of $30 per hour per laborer (4 hour minimums apply). Please contact your Event Manager for further information pertaining to scheduling and estimating cost associated with room changeover and resets.

Coat Check / Luggage Check

Coat and luggage check services are exclusive to the DECC. Permanent coat rooms and portable coat racks are available in limited quantities upon request and/or within your licensed space. The DECC is not responsible for items left in coat check areas or on coat racks. Please contact your Event Manager to arrange for a coat check and/or luggage check service (at the prevailing rate) for your event.

Decorations (installation of décor)

Please request permission from your Event Manager, prior to purchasing or planning to utilize any decorations inside the DECC to ensure they conform to standard operating and safety needs. The following items often requested to be used for decoration but are not permitted to be used without prior written consent:

• Balloons (Refer to: Helium Balloons)
• Candles (Refer to: Candles/Votives)
• Confetti (confetti cannons)
• Glitter
• Hay or Straw
• Paint
• Pushpin or thumb tacks
• Soil or Dirt
• Tape (Refer to: Adhesives) Please note that if any of the above prohibited items are utilized, excessive cleaning fees may be incurred by Licensee and applied to the final master invoice. Licensee is responsible for the repair of any damage or disfigurement to the Facility resulting from operations by the Licensee or any of its exhibitors, agents, employees, sub-contractors, etc. Licensee and the Event Manager will walk through the Licensed Premises prior to and after the License Period so as to identify any damage occurring during the License Period. (Refer to: Adhesives)

Decorator / Display Companies

Exposition and event services provider companies are required to setup and teardown within the dates and times specified in the License Agreement with the DECC. Exposition and event services provider companies are responsible for following all DECC Service Guide policies and procedures. All exposition and event services provider companies must enter at the security console located on the 6th Street loading dock. All contractors must be identified with an ESCA badge and uniform while onsite. If no ESCA badge is presented to security, DECC security will distribute a temporary ESCA badge at prevailing rates.

• Exposition and event services provider companies are required to vacate the facility floor in the same clean and clear condition available upon arrival. Tape or sticker removal is a decorator responsibility – DECC labor cost will be applied to the Licensees’ master invoice if said decorator does not remove tape/stickers.
• No equipment, pallet or waste material may be left on the loading dock beyond the license agreement timeframe or charges will be incurred.
• Events with exhibitor booths are required to have double back pipe and drape to create an electrical raceway per Cincinnati Fire Marshal and safety precautions.
• It is important that your decorator provide accurate timely floor plans noting any electrical floor boxes or special needs for DECC approval.
• Any damage, facility charges or other costs incurred by display, decoration, or labor contractors are the responsibility of the Licensee. Please ensure your decorator reviews this document to eliminate any additional charges.


The DECC does not provide drayage services. Show Management will be responsible for consignment of all freight shipments. Show management is responsible for all arrangements and related costs for off-site storage before, during, and following the license period outlined in the License Agreement. The DECC does not have secure warehouse space, any shipments that arrive prior to the first Licensed day will be refused.


The DECC is compliant with all Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requirements. The DECC has elevators, wheelchair accessible ramps (limited inventory), restrooms, concessions and telephones designed to accommodate the needs of those with physical and non-physical impairments. DECC exhibit halls, meeting rooms, and ballrooms may be equipped with services for the hearing impaired upon request though dependent upon the DECC and Prestige A/V inventory. Any special arrangements you or your attendees may need should be communicated with your Event Manager as soon as possible.


(Refer to: Loading Docks)

Electrical and Utility Services

Electrical and utility services are supplied exclusively through the DECC. Exhibitor services ordering and forms are available online at or through the Exhibitor Services Manager by calling (513) 419-7317. Re-selling DECC electrical and utility services is not permitted. Facility floor plans illustrating locations of electrical services are available upon request. Charges will be assessed by the DECC for electrical services utilized in all exhibit halls, meeting rooms, ballrooms, and common lobby space. Please contact your Event Manager for further information and rate sheets.

Elevators (Freight)

(See Appendix H for specifications) There are (3) three freight elevators accessible at the DECC. Use of any freight elevator must be arranged through the Event Manager. Freight elevator operators will be required for usage and billed at prevailing rates. For the safety and well-being of all individuals, freight elevators are not licensed for passenger use.

Elevators (Passengers)

(See Appendix H for specifications) For the convenience of our Guests requiring special assistance, there are (3) three public passenger elevators inside the DECC that are to be utilized for passenger traffic ONLY (freight transportation is strictly prohibited).

Emergency Medical Technicians (Medics)

Medical services, including Emergency Medical Technicians, are exclusive to the DECC and the partnership with Tri-Health. Events or a combination of events having an expected attendance of 500 people or more, or any event with the consumption of alcohol, or at the Event Managers discretion will require at least (1) one EMT to be on-site one half hour prior to, during, and one half hour after event hours. There may be specific events where DECC will require multiple medical technicians (i.e. athletic competitions, cheerleading events, demographic related) Please contact your Event Manager for the prevailing hourly rate and to coordinate the coverage required for your event. Any accidents occurring or first aid rendered to a convention or show attendee, staff or employee must be reported to facility security or the Event Manager immediately. The incident must be recorded on a form provided by the Convention Center and by the first aid contractor, with a copy issued to the Event Manager before the close of the Event.

Emergency and Public Safety Requirements

The Licensee should familiarize themselves, their contractors, exhibitors and employees with the safety procedures and regulations governing all parts of the DECC used by the Licensee. The Licensee should instruct their agents and employees about the DECC’s Emergency Procedures, and their own specific plans to evacuate any disabled persons.

• The Licensee must, at all times, conduct its activities with full regard for public safety and observe and abide by all applicable rules, regulations and requests of the DECC or duly authorized governmental agencies responsible for public safety. The Licensee is responsible for the acts and conduct of all persons admitted to the Premises or any other portion of the Properties.
• Licensee is required to hire, through the DECC, security/guest services during the License Period on the Premises, including exhibit halls, registration, meeting rooms, loading dock areas and exits. A schedule of the number and locations of guards/guest services must be submitted in writing and approved by the Event Manager thirty (30) days prior to the first day of the License Period. The DECC maintains twenty-four (24) hour security at the console for the protection of the Facility.
• Parking of vehicles in the bus lane located on Elm Street is strictly prohibited. The lane is for the exclusive use of shuttle buses and taxi service. Shuttle times, dates and number of buses must be provided to the Event Manager no less than three (3) weeks prior to the first day of the Contract Period.
• DECC Management retains the right to make public address announcements to ensure public safety and building operation. The Licensee will be notified prior to such announcements, except during emergencies.


There are (6) six sets of escalators connecting the (3) three levels that make up the DECC: 1st Floor to 2nd Floor 5th Street and Elm Street Main Lobby Entrance Escalators 1st Floor to 2nd Floor 5th Street Concourse East 2nd Floor to 3rd Floor 5th Street Concourse Albee Arch 1st Floor to 2nd Floor West Escalators 2nd Floor to 3rd Floor West Escalators 2nd Floor to 3rd Floor North Escalators

Event Managers

After a License Agreement has been negotiated and signed, you will be transitioned from the sales process to the event planning process; an Event Manager will be assigned (by the Director of Event Services) to serve as your main contact/liaison to assist in coordinating your event. The Event Manager is responsible for coordinating the delivering of equipment and services agreed upon in the License agreement and ensure you adhere to the License Agreement. The Event Manager will assist with drafting room setup diagrams, organizing staffing schedules, coordinating services that are available through the DECC, and creating estimated and final invoice worksheets. Your Event Manager will be committed to ensuring your event expectations are met and exceeded. Your Event Manager is your main contact for anything and everything during your visit to the DECC.

Event Staffing

Staffing requirements need to be finalized in conjunction with the Event Manager a minimum of twenty-one (21) days prior to the first contracted date. All staff cancellations require a seventy-two (72) hours notice (excluding weekends and holidays); otherwise a minimum charge of four (4) hours per staff member will be incurred. Cancellations during shifts will result in charges for the balance of each shift. Your Event Manager will be able to assist with determining appropriate staffing levels. Your Event Manager may require additional staffing than you originally request to cover breaks, entry and exit points, and patrol lobbies, etc. For more information please contact your Event Manager.

Exclusive DECC Services

The following is a list of services provided exclusively by the DECC. Therefore, bringing in an outside contractor is prohibited for the following services. Please note DECC exclusive services cannot be re-sold with the additional cost passed on to your exhibitors:

• Aisle / Booth Carpet Cleaning / Porter Service
• ATMs (current agreement/partnership with PNC Bank)
• Catering and Concessions (provided by Spectra)
• Cleaning Services
• Coat/Luggage Check
• Crowd Management Staffing
• Emergency Medical Technicians and medical coverage
• Event Staffing (setup/teardown of DECC equipment, security, dock access, ushers, etc.)
• Facility – affixed Audio, Lighting, Level 3 Ballroom Rigging and Rigging exceeding 200 lbs.
• Telecommunications (Telephones/Internet/Wi-Fi)( provided by SmartCity Networks)
• Utility Services: Compressed Air, Electrical, Natural Gas, Water


All exhibits are to be transported in and out of the DECC via the 6th Street loading dock during designated move-in/out dates and times. Equipment, furniture, and exhibits are not permitted to be transported in passenger elevators or on escalators. Push carts, furniture, and exposition equipment should be arranged through the designated decorator/exposition company for your show. The common areas, lobby space, or public space at the DECC may not be obstructed by exhibits or closed to general public access. Doors, windows, fire hose cabinets, AEDs, pull stations, fire extinguishers, electrical closets, telecommunications closets, storage closets or house lighting attachments may not be covered or obstructed. All exhibit floor plans require the advance approval of the DECC and the Cincinnati Fire Marshal. Please contact your Event Manager for pre-approved lobby usage areas for registration counters, displays, etc.

Exhibitor Access

During designated move-in/out dates and times, exhibitors and contracted suppliers are required to enter/exit the DECC via the 6th Street loading dock entrance unless other arrangements have been mutually agreed upon between the DECC Event Manager and Show Management. Contact your Event Manager to schedule staffing requirements adequate for a safe and secure controlled access to the DECC.

Exhibitor Services

The DECC Exhibitor Services Department promotes and sells the services of the DECC directly to exhibitors, provides a point of contact for exhibitors who are interested in purchasing utility services, and assists exhibitors and show management during an event. Services available include electric, equipment, utilities, booth carpet cleaning, and porter service. Exhibitors may order services online at The service desk is provided complimentary for exhibitors and show management as an included customer service tool. Service desk hours will be determined by the DECC and may include full staffing during heavy move-in times or a “Hot-Phone” when the demand is diminutive. The service desk is frequently located next to your decorator’s service area for the convenience of exhibitors requiring services.

Fire Regulations

(refer to MOTORIZED VEHICLES for display vehicles rules and regulations) It is the ultimate responsibility of the Licensee to obtain the necessary permits for the Event. This includes, but is not limited to, pyrotechnics and/or fire inspector approval, etc. The use of flammable and volatile materials or materials under high pressure within exhibits, displays, offices and meeting rooms within the DECC is strictly prohibited unless approved, in advance and in writing, by the Cincinnati Fire Department and DECC Management. The following provides additional information regarding fire regulations:

• All vehicles not on display must be removed from the Facility one hour before attendees are allowed onto the exhibit floor. The DECC and the City of Cincinnati Fire Inspector have final determination as to when the Event may begin.
• Written authorization by DECC Management and the City of Cincinnati Fire Inspector shall be required for fireworks or other pyrotechnics to be set off in or near the DECC, open flames, or welding.
• All decorations, drapes, signs, banners, table coverings and skirts, carpeting or similar decorative materials used shall be flame retardant to the satisfaction of the City of Cincinnati Fire Inspector. All such material is subject to inspection and flame testing by the Fire Inspector.
• Exhibitors, service contractors and all event personnel must comply with all federal, state and local fire codes which apply to places of public assembly. Please refer to the City of Cincinnati Fire Codes for complete Fire Regulation guidelines.
• No portion of the sidewalks, ramps, entrances/exits, corridors, passageways, halls, lobbies, stairways, escalators, aisles, driveways or access to public utilities of the Facility shall be obstructed or used for any other purpose than ingress and egress. Access to the fire detection and suppression systems, HVAC vents and house lighting fixtures and controls shall not be covered or obstructed. Exit doors must have a 10’ clearance on both sides (egress and ingress) with no physical obstruction. All exit doors will remain unlocked during all show hours.
• Fire extinguishers must be available in all cooking booths. Where cooking equipment involves the use of vegetable or animal oils and fats, it is required that at least one (1) 2.5 gallon (6L) “Type K” fire extinguisher with current inspection date tag be available. Fire extinguishers shall be readily visible, and have no more than a 30-foot unobstructed travel distance and cannot be placed closer than 5 foot of the cooking appliance. Cooking demos or displays may require a Fire Inspector to be scheduled at exhibitor or show management cost. Please contact your Event Manager for further specifics.

First Aid

(refer to Emergency Medical Technician) The DECC has one (1) equipped First Aid Room located on the First Floor 5th Street South Concourse outside of Exhibit Hall A. Medics may be contacted through DECC Security on a facility radio, or called by phone at (513) 419-7323 or on in-house rental phones by dialing extension 1323.

Floor Loads (Weight Restrictions)

(Refer to: Attachment C: Weight Load Restrictions (Exhibit Hall A Diagram)

Floor Plans

All floor plans must be pre-approved by your Event Manager and Cincinnati Fire Marshal prior to any booth space being sold. The final approvals are required a minimum of thirty (30) days prior to the first contracted day. Please contact your Event Manager to obtain a copy of the DECC floor plan template in AutoCad (dwg format); other formats are available upon request.

Floor Type

1st Floor Exhibit Halls – concrete (treated with sealer) 1st Floor Lobby Space – carpet 2nd Floor Meeting Rooms 2nd Lobby Space – carpet 2nd Floor Service Corridors - concrete (treated with sealer) 3rd Floor Ballrooms and Lobby Space – carpet 3rd Floor Service Corridors - concrete (treated with sealer)

Fog / Smoke / Haze / Laser Lights

Fog machines, haze effects, or laser light shows will not be permitted without the express written approval by the DECC Event Manager. If approved, only water based hazers/fog machines can be utilized and such devices or effects will require a Cincinnati Fire Inspector to be scheduled and onsite before-during-after to permit DECC to silence the fire suppression system that would be affected. Cincinnati Fire Department staffing costs will be applied to the master invoice. Please contact your Event Manager to schedule Cincinnati Fire Department staffing at least seventy-two (72) hours prior to usage date.

Food and Beverage Sampling

The DECC exclusive Food and Beverage provider (Spectra Food and Beverage) must approve, in advance, all exhibitor or Licensee requests for food or beverage sampling distributed from exhibition booths or any other areas within the DECC. All requests must be made by completing and submitting the Spectra Food and Beverage Sample Authorization form to their assigned Catering Sales Manager. (See Appendix A). Licensee and its exhibitors are responsible for obtaining a City of Cincinnati health permit, in the event that permission to sample foods and/or beverages has been granted by Spectra Food and Beverage management and the DECC. A copy of the health permit application and/or receipt for the health permit must be submitted to the Spectra Food and Beverage Catering Sales Manager no less than seven (7) days prior to the first day of the License Period. The application for the health permit or the receipt must also be displayed in the booth or at the Show Management Information Desk.

Food and Beverage Services

Food and beverage services are operated and controlled exclusively by the DECC and Spectra Food and Beverage. No food and beverage supplies, or alcoholic beverages, may be brought into or removed from the DECC by the Licensee, its employees, contractors or attendees. All food and beverage operations within the DECC and on the DECC grounds are exclusive to the DECC and Spectra Food and Beverage. The Licensee shall not share in any revenue generated. Please contact your Catering Sales Manager for menu selections, payment policies, guarantee, and additional catering services. A guaranteed attendance number for all catered food and beverage functions is required three (3) to five (5) business days (depending on the size of the event) prior to each function (excluding weekends and holidays); Otherwise the estimated number will be taken as the guarantee and invoiced accordingly.


(Powered industrial truck used to carry, push, pull, lift, stack, or tier materials)

• Only qualified individuals who are properly trained, authorized and licensed may operate materials handling equipment inside the DECC.
• Forklifts are prohibited on the 2nd and 3rd floor of the DECC.

• Forklifts are prohibited on any carpeted area inside the DECC without consent from your Event Manager. Forklift and motorized pallet jack operator requirements:
• Seat Belt use is required if forklift is equipped
• No use of forklifts as aerial work platforms without approved OSHA compliant platform attachment with safety rails. Platform must have compliance information affixed and legible.
• Forks must be lowered, but high enough to prevent touching floor or striking protrusions while forklift is in motion.
• Operators must have in their possession and be able to show valid OSHA compliant operator certification for equipment being utilized on DECC property. (This does include electric pallet jacks)
• Load must not obstruct operator’s clear view in direction being traveled.
• Employers must ensure that each powered industrial truck operator is competent to operate a powered industrial truck safely, as demonstrated by the successful completion of the training and evaluation specified by OSHA; certificates providing proof of completion are required on-site.
• No Need for Speed! Safety First! SLOW DOWN! Stop-Listen-Look.


(Refer to: Deliveries or Shipping/Receiving)

Furniture (Common Space Lobby Furniture)

Common space lobby furniture is discouraged from being moved or relocated. 

Garbage Removal

(Refer to: Recycling)

Hazardous Substances

(Refer to: License Agreement)


Licensor will provide at no cost to the Licensee clean and orderly shared public spaces, a broom swept Exhibit Hall floor or vacuumed Meeting Room/Ballroom floor; empty/clean waste receptacles and sanitary restrooms. General Public Spaces – At no cost to the Licensee the DECC’s personnel will maintain all public access areas that include lobbies, registration areas, concourses, hallways, restrooms, DECC lounge spaces, lobby based concession areas such as Espresso Café as well as setting and servicing all DECC waste and recycling containers. The DECC will provide the appropriate level of staffing needed based on attendance levels. Exhibit Area Licensed Space - All specialty servicing of “leased exhibit area space” for the duration of the contract, shall be the responsibility of the Licensee. Billing will include show floor cleaning, aisle carpet cleaning, booth cleaning, and the servicing of specialty lounge space areas within the leased spaces.

• Aisle Carpet Cleaning – vacuuming is an exclusive service provided by the DECC and will be charged if the service is requested at the prevailing rate based on linear feet.
• Booth Cleaning/Porter Service – vacuuming booth carpet, collecting trash from booth receptacles is an exclusive service provided by the DECC. Show Managers may pick up the cost of these services or exhibitors may order these services on-line with the DECC via their website at

All Licensed Space - The Licensee will be responsible solely for excessive servicing needs at the hourly prevailing rate to include but not limited to:
• Bulk Trash Removal (pallets, crates, carpet waste, plastic)
• Decorations left behind (Tape/Sticker or residue on floor or walls)
• Signage/Banners • Glitter/Paint/Staining
• Broken/Damaged DECC items Dumpsters – Open top removal as requested or required will be billed to the Licensee at the prevailing rate. Licensee is responsible to return the licensed space clean and in the same condition it was received.


(Refer to: License Agreement)

Inspection Procedures

Guests entering the Duke Energy Convention Center may be subject to random inspection by electronic wanding or physical search. The DECC reserves the right to dictate and determine which events will be required to coordinate inspection procedures based on type of event and/or event history. Carry-in items for all Guests are subject to inspection by DECC personnel prior to entrance into the facility or at any time while inside the convention center. Carry-in items may be limited to size specifications determined by individual show management requests and event type.

Insurance Certificates

(Refer to: License Agreement for specific financial requirements and specifications)

• Certificate of insurance is required to include these (3) entities listed as additionally insured City of Cincinnati, Duke Energy Convention Center, Spectra.
• Certificate of Insurance dates and times are required to be effective for the entire length of the license agreement (including move-in and move-out)
• Certificate of insurance is due to your Event Manager no later than (30) days prior to first licensed date. If your Event Manager has not received the certificate of insurance (72) hours in advance, they will order and purchase a certificate of insurance for you from our Corporate Spectra Offices and will bill you $1.00 per person per expected attendance – fees will be included on master show management invoice. Spectra insurance cannot be cancelled once obtained


Keys and security re-cores may be ordered with advance notice (minimum of (7) seven days prior to the event) at the prevailing rates through your Event Manager. Security re-cores will be billed $50 per lock per room secured. Up to five (5) standard keys will be distributed complimentary; additional keys can be ordered at $5.00 per key per room. Keys must be returned on the last day of the event. There is a $250.00 charge for each standard key not returned and a $350.00 charge for each security cored key not returned.

Licenses and Permits

The Licensee is responsible for obtaining all licenses, permits, and approvals from the appropriate regulatory boards and state/national authorities that may be required, but not limited to, staging the event (including business licenses, special occasion, special event licenses, ASCAP, BMI and SESAC licenses). DECC operates under its own liquor license through its exclusive food and beverage provider (Spectra Food and Beverage).

Lighting Levels

As full-time practitioners of energy conservation, lighting during move-in/out will be at levels suitable for safe working conditions. House lighting levels during event days will be as scheduled with your Event Manager. Special lighting scenes for exhibit halls, meeting rooms and ballrooms are available through the DECC’s Engineering Department and may incur additional fees for labor and lift usage associated. Please contact your Event Manager to schedule labor and obtain potential cost estimates in advance. Exhibit hall lights require a ten (10) minute warm-up period before obtaining maximum brightness. Lights also require a cool down period (10-15 minutes) between turning off and turning on.

Loading Facilities

The loading dock is utilized by the venue and shows alike which makes it a vital access point for all. In order to meet all the essential and expected needs, processes are in place to streamline the usage. The DECC Security team will be the face of the dock for show exhibitors as they are greeted and given a dock pass that allows for a designated bay (unloading space) and time limit. High bays are assigned based on which area of the venue is being utilized by each show so there may be limits on the number of bays accessible. The Security Manager will work with each Event Manager to clarify show needs and designate bays for usage. Due to the constant traffic and multiple uses of the dock, personal operating vehicles (POVs) are not allowed to remain parked on the dock other than the show manager and for the purposes of loading and unloading. Staffing levels will vary depending on show needs and the Event Manager will review security staffing placement requirements with you as show details are discussed.

Lobby Space (Common Areas)

All DECC lobby space or common areas serve as main entrances for DECC guests, delegates and members of the public. It is available on a limited basis for shared use with other DECC functions/events. Portions of public spaces may be used for registration, food functions, and limited exhibits with prior approval by your Event Manager. DECC lobby space (common space) is not licensed space. Please discuss your specific needs with your Sales Manager and/or Event Manager.

Logo / Photographs / DECC Images

Officially approved logos of the DECC, high resolution photographs and DECC images are available for your printed materials. Please contact your Event Manger to assist in obtaining these graphics or visit our website to download.

Lost and Found

All personal lost and found articles are catalogued and stored for thirty (30) days with our Security Department. After that period, all articles are disposed of at the sole discretion of the DECC. Show and exhibitor items that are left behind will be disposed of after 48hours. Please contact our Security Console (513) 419-7325 to inquire about retrieving lost items or contact your Event Manager to assist in locating misplaced items.

Lost Kids / Adults

**In the event of a parent/child separation in which initial contact is with the CHILD:

• The person who is initially contacted by the child should immediately determine if the child is capable of coherent verbal communication. If yes: escort the child to the 5th/Elm Lobby and notify Security posted there who will immediately notify the console.  If no: escort the child to the Security Console.
• If the parent guardian is not found by the time the Event Manager on Duty is contacted, the EM will:  Notify the client/show management of the issue and request permission to make a building-wide announcement to relocate the parent/guardian. Keep the client/show management updated as the situation progresses.
• If a parent/guardian is not located within (2) full hours, Security will:  Activate the Chain of Command via standard procedure. Contact the Cincinnati Police Department, who will then take custody of the child and take over control of the process.


**In the event of a parent/child separation in which initial contact is with the PARENT:

• The parent/guardian should be escorted to the 5th/Elm Lobby and put in contact with Security posted there.
• The guard on this post will: Notify the Security Console in the following manner: State that a Signal 7 is in progress. Provide a detailed description of the missing child, including age, race, hair color, approximate height/weight, full name, and current clothing. Provide a description with the last known location and time last seen. If the parent/guardian is not found by the time the Event Manager on Duty is contacted, the EM will: Notify the client/show management of the issue. Keep the client/show management updated as the situation progresses.
• Once the child is located: The adult must complete a Lost Parent/Guardian Release Form for our records. If there is any doubt that the adult is not the parent/guardian of the child in question, you may contact the Cincinnati Police Department for assistance. o Notify all staff/departments that the Signal 7 has been resolved.
• If at any time the parent/guardian requests to involve the Cincinnati Police Department, Security will contact them for assistance. It is at the sole discretion of the parents to involve law enforcement, however we will suggest contacting police once the child has been missing for (1) hour.


(Refer to: Appendix 2-3-4) DECC facility floor plans are also available online & on the Cincy Live! APP.


If you anticipate your event attracting media attention, please advise your Event Manager so they may explain the options available for live remotes, taping, additional lighting, etc. that may be requested. Please advise your Event Manager of media arrival times to ensure DECC Engineering can plan to adjust facility lighting schedules as deemed necessary.


(Refer to: Emergency Medical technicians)

Motorized Vehicles

Motorized vehicles or any gasoline engines on display are required to be inspected by a City of Cincinnati Fire Specialist prior to admission into the DECC and are subject to the following conditions:

• Gas tanks must be less than ¼ full (five (5) gallons or less for diesel engines)
• Gas caps must be locked or sealed
• Batteries must be disconnected after vehicle is moved into display location
• Drip pans or plastic must be placed under vehicle
• Carpet squares are required to be placed under tires on carpeted areas
• Vehicles must be clean and dry upon arrival
• Keys are required to be left with DECC Security if unattended
• Fire Specialist must be scheduled by DECC Event Manager to approve the above stipulations All motorized vehicles owned by the DECC are to be operated by licensed/authorized DECC personnel only. Motorized carts (Segways, scooters, golf carts, etc.) used for convenience are not permitted in carpeted areas and public space during hours of operations when general public are occupying the facility unless written consent is provided by the General Manager or designee.

* This excludes motorized vehicles used by patrons with disabilities. Please consult your Event Manager if you have any questions with the above terms and to obtain a Cincinnati Fire Specialist cost estimate for vehicle inspections.


(Refer to Appendix F: Parking Adjacent to the DECC) The DECC does not directly manage any of the surrounding parking garages or flat lots adjacent and/or attached via the Skywalk System. Please contact your Event Manager to obtain the management information pertaining to the adjacent and surrounding parking options.


The DECC retains the right to take photographs of an event for its own records and/or publicity purposes.

Product Sales

Sales of event-related products are permitted within the Licensed event space, excluding all common areas. Any common area required for event related product sales needs to be discussed in detail and pre-approved with your Sales Manager and Event Manager.


Propane usage is permitted within the facility on a limited basis but must be approved by your Event Manager. Propane storage is confined to empty trailers on the loading dock. It is imperative that you contact your Event Manager if you or one of your exhibitors requires the use of flammable gas as permits and inspections are mandatory per the office of the Cincinnati Fire Marshall.


The DECC is committed to reducing the use of natural resources and the amount of waste that results from the various activities and events that take place at the Duke Energy Convention Center. These efforts are part of a Spectra initiative called the STEP UP Program, which is a program designed to enhance responsibility for both our organization and the events at the DECC. Your Event Manager can provide details regarding this program upon request. Please identify any specialized waste removal required for your event. This includes debris from theme décor setups (e.g. trees, plants, mulch, etc.) or as a result of your event activities (e.g. food sampling, non-reusable crates/wrapping, etc.). There are additional costs to Show Management for removal of excessive trash, pallets, dirt, dust, mulch, etc. Your Event Manager can provide further details and quotes.

• 20 recycling receptacles permanently positioned throughout the center that can accept cardboard, paper, plastic, aluminum cans and glass.
• Additional receptacles can be requested and ordered through Show Management for placement around the building at a small cost.
• Recycling Cages (3) are used by DECC Operations during floor show move-ins and move-outs to allow Exhibitors to drop cardboard in. DECC Operations transports the cardboard to our bailer for compaction and then will replace the cages on the show floor throughout the move-in / move-out.
• Wooden Pallets left at the DECC are recycled through a 3rd party.
• The DECC’s recycling station is located outside of Hall A next to the North Freight. At this location, we house our cardboard bailer, as well as our large com-mingle recycling bins. These bins are able to accept paper, plastic, glass, aluminum, steel and tin cans.
• Materials considered unacceptable for the Recycling Station include: Medical Sharps or syringes, window or drinking glass, plastics that are not bottles or jugs, coat hangers or scrap metal, plastic bags, shrink wrap plastic and Styrofoam. These materials can be disposed of in our onsite dumpsters.
• The Operations Department will work in unison with your Event Manager to answer any questions or requests pertaining to recycling or waste removal.

Rigging (Exhibit Halls and Ballrooms)

All loads and methods of suspension must be pre-approved by your DECC Event Manager. A rigging plan showing loads and method of suspension is required for such approval. All rigging exceeding 200 pounds will be required to be hung by Prestige A/V exclusively. All rigging inside the third floor ballrooms is required to be hung by Prestige A/V exclusively. Any rigging that is found to be incorrect or unacceptable for any reason will be made safe at the expense of the show management. Rigging points in the facility are for dead hangs only, unless written permission is authorized by the General Manager or designee in advance for live loads. Rigging and inspection fees may apply:

• Exhibit Hall and Grand Ballroom Hang Point Fees - $50 per point per day
• The DECC will consider “point” to be the steel cabling used to wrap or to be affixed around the structural beams of the Facility. Contractor shall have the exclusive right to supply the steel cabling.
• The Licensee of the Facility is ultimately responsible for any damage, injury, etc. resulting from the hanging or attachment to the Facility by any exhibitor, contractor, subcontractor, representative, agent, etc. during the Licensed Period.
• A written request for any hanging or attaching (including but not limited to drawings, weights, attachment points, etc.) must be submitted to the DECC Event Manager at least thirty (30) days prior to the first day of the Licensed Period.
• At no time will any item be attached to the ceiling grid, ceiling tile or a false ceiling of the Facility.
• All beam structures or other painted structures are to be covered with a protective material before wire, cable, etc. is attached to ensure no damage occurs to painted surfaces.
• At no time will electrical lighting conduits, utility pipes or sprinkler systems be used as supports or as a source for attachment.
• No wires, ropes, etc. should be left behind. All items must be completely removed before the end of the Licensed Period.
• All rigging and/or hanging requests must be submitted in writing to the Event Manager or the Convention Center audio-visual contractor. The DECC audio-visual contractor will confirm whether or not the requirements fall within the Facility architect’s guidelines. Licensor or their designated representative may, at any time, refuse permission to hang, stop, terminate or delay the hanging or attachment process if they are concerned for safety reasons or concerned for damage to the building. The Facility Management decision will be final in all cases. Facility management has the ultimate right to assign an on-site supervisor provided by the Facility audio-visual contractor, at published rates at time of rigging, to approve any and all rigging.
• Rigging points are not available in second floor meeting rooms.

Room Capacities

Room capacities will vary depending upon the specific function requirements such as staging, lighting and audio/visual setup requirements. It is necessary, and to your benefit to discuss your proposed function details with your Event Manager to ensure safe and appropriate allocation of space usage. Optimum room setup diagrams/layouts can be obtained from your Event Manager. General room capacity information and facility diagrams are available on the DECC website at (Refer to Appendix I)

Sales Manager

Your Sales Manager will assist you in space selection and issuing license agreements as well as any addendums or special attachments needed. They will work with you to ensure you fully understand the agreement and answer any contractual questions or concerns you may encounter. It is also the Sales Manager’s responsibility to assist the Event Manager to ensure you adhere to the License Agreement. They will follow-up with you after your event has been completed to make sure your event was a success and discuss any questions you may have pertaining to that specific event and/or future events.

Satellite Dish Placement

Should your event setup require installation of satellite dishes; please notify the Event Manager as there are only a limited number of locations for satellite dishes. Satellite dish installation requires prior approval and advanced coordination with our Engineering Department. Labor, services, and / or permits required will be billed at prevailing rates.


Facility Security and guest services management personnel is provided exclusively by the DECC. The DECC Security Staff provides coverage (24-hours-a-day / 365-days a year) for general building console security complimentary. Event security and guest services must be scheduled through your Event Manager. Due to the complexity of the facility, there are minimum requirements for security staff and loading dock patrol agents, particularly during move-in/out of an event. These minimum requirements vary depending on the type and size of the event. The DECC is considered a “closed campus” unless exterior facility doors are staffed and billed at prevailing rates to show management. Certain events may require on-duty Cincinnati Police; qualifications will be determined at the sole discretion of the DECC Management Team. If your event qualifies as a special event requiring Cincinnati Police Detail, your Event Manager will contract this service directly with the Cincinnati Police. Show management will receive a CPD Detail line item on the master invoice.

Set-Up Instructions

The DECC will require complete daily function information on the physical setup of your event including utility and equipment needs a minimum of thirty (30) days prior to the first day your space is contracted. It is imperative that you share/review all your event specifications in detail with your Event Manager as soon as the information is available to ensure all your equipment and staffing needs can be accommodated. Placing your Event Manager on your exhibitor and/or delegate mailing list will keep them well informed and enable staff to anticipate many aspects of your event.

Shipping and Receiving

(Refer to Freight)

Signs and Special Decorations

Signs, banners, and posters may not be adhered to any part of the DECC or to any of the furnishings or fixtures of the DECC without prior approval (Refer: Adhesives). Limited quantities of easels are available for rental for displaying such material within your Licensed event space. Easels are limited in public spaces due to the extensive electronic signage and three-tiered directional signage frames available. If signage is necessary in public spaces it must be approved by your Event Manager and be deemed of a professional convention quality (no hand-made or paper signs taped to boards are permitted). Please request contact information for local sign making services through your Event Manager or consult your contracted decorator.

Smoking and Tobacco

Ohio voters passed issue Number 5, on Nov. 7, 2006, which calls for a smoking ban in public facilities and places of employment under Ohio Revised Code Chapter 3794. Thus, the Duke Energy Convention Center has been designated as a completely non-smoking facility and is required to enforce the regulations outlined in the code.

• Guests are not permitted to smoke inside of the Duke Energy Convention Center. Loading dock is considered to be located inside the facility.
• Smoking is prohibited in areas immediately adjacent to building entrances and exits.
• Violators may be subject to ejection and potential fines.
• Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are also prohibited.
• Giving samples of tobacco is considered the same as selling tobacco – the same rules apply.

As a courtesy to our guests that smoke, the DECC has designated a few areas as smoking areas:
• 3rd Floor Outdoor Patio located adjacent to the Grand Ballroom and Junior Ballroom.
• Perimeter locations deemed as approved smoking areas are labeled as such with signage and are located a minimum of 35’ from all entry/exit points.

Sound System

The permanently installed audio, video and lighting control equipment is to be used only under the direct supervision of the in-house audio visual contractor with regards to the house microphone, mixers, patch cables and control devices. The in-house audio visual contractor will provide current rates for its service upon request.


(Refer to Freight)

Telecommunications / Internet / Networking

Smart City is America’s leading provider of Event Technology services and is the proud partner of the Duke Energy Convention Center as its exclusive provider of the following services: · High-Speed Internet Access · T1 and other Special Data Circuits · Voice Networking Services · LAN / WAN / VPN Construction · Point-to-Point Networking · Wireless Buyouts and Sponsorship Opportunities · Webcasting (Internet Broadcasting) · Internet / E-mail Stations / Cyber Cafes · VLAN / DNS / DHCP Engineering Smart City offers high-speed Internet access using fast Ethernet protocols to all exhibit space, public areas and meeting rooms. Our network service professionals also offer turnkey data networking services that enable clients to create Local Area Networks (LANs), Wide Area Networks (WANs) and Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) all using the latest technology. Custom configurations are available upon request.

With Smart City, any area of the Duke Energy Convention Center can be networked together creating dedicated building-wide event networks that make our center a smart place to book your event. Give your attendees complimentary access to the Internet using one of the many wireless buyout products that can also be used to push users to your own personal website or that of a sponsor by incorporating a wireless splash screen redirect. Show Managers or Exhibitors may order telephones or internet connections directly thru Smart City Networks; please request Smart City Networks ordering forms from your Event Manager. For further information and pricing please contact Smart City Networks at (513) 419-7201.

Ticket Sales and Handling

Specific information pertaining to ticket sales and handling are outlined in detail, in your License Agreement and DECC Ticket/Box Office policies. Should you have any questions or concerns, or know you need to order Box Office Staffing, please contact your Event Manager. Box Office Staffing is required to be scheduled (60) sixty days prior to your first contracted date.

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) or Drones

The use of any remote controlled drone, UAV or UAS, is prohibited on or over any facility properties under the control of Spectra at any time. All inquiries regarding this policy and the use of drones in any of these areas should be directed to the Event Manager. Spectra is committed to providing a safe and secure entertainment and hospitality venue at all times. The safety of our guests, sub-contractors, and staff members is our highest priority. The rules & regulations derived in partnership with local, state and federal authorities are designed to support this commitment.

Vehicle Ingress/Egress

Automobiles and trucks may be displayed in some lobby or common space areas with Event Manager approval. Carpeted areas require proactive protective measures (e.g. carpet squares under tires, Vizqueen or plastic to prevent drips). Vehicles for display are required to follow all City of Cincinnati Fire Department rules and regulations (Refer: Fire Regulations/Motorized Vehicles). Contact your Event Manager regarding physical restrictions (size and weight restrictions) to lobby areas and Exhibit Hall A. Please contact your Event Manager to coordinate scheduling of vehicle ingress/egress.

Visitor Information Center

The Visitors Information Center located inside the first floor 5th Street and Elm Street lobby entrance is scheduled by the DECC Director of Event Services in conjunction with the Cincinnati Convention and Visitors Bureau when warranted. The visitor information center specialists provide information about the DECC, give directions and assist guests with finding local area attractions and restaurants. Contact your Event Manager to schedule staffing and operating hours.

Water Coolers

Water coolers are more sustainable than bottled water. Should you require a water cooler within a specific room, they may be ordered exclusively through Spectra Food and Beverage for a fee. Please contact your Catering Sales Manager for more details and associated costs.


( The DECC’s website contains information about onsite services, room setup capacities, floor plans, schedule of public events, online exhibitor services ordering, and late breaking DECC news updates. Our regularly updated website contains all of the DECC’s most current information essential for planning events and acclimating clients and visitors to the facility.


The DECC wheelchair inventory is strictly held in reserve for emergency usage only. The DECC does not have wheelchairs available for rental to guests or clients for personal usage. Contact your Event Manager to obtain contact information for local wheelchair and scooter rental companies.


Smart City Networks (exclusive Telecom and Internet provider) can provide shared access to the Internet with up to 128 Kbps or greater (depending on service purchased) of throughput via a Wireless Local Area Network connection. It comes with a single Private IP address (DHCP) and provides a single connection to a single computer. Service is accessed via a log-in / access code or a log-in / access code and password. This is normally not available as a pre-purchased service but is available as a do-it-yourself on-site service. You cannot utilize a hub, router, or data switch to distribute to multiple computers with this connection. Streaming Applications, Routers, VoIP, DHCP or Proxy Servers are not allowed with this connection. Smart City can engineer a custom dedicated wireless network(s) to accommodate special requests (WEP Key with 40 or 128 bit encryption, authentication, DHCP, etc). Please call for a quote.

• Complimentary Wi-Fi LOCATIONS: 1st Floor – 5th Street and Elm Street Espresso Café. 2nd Floor – Window Alcove Outside South Meeting Room 237. 3rd Floor – Junior Ballroom C Pre Function Lobby (near FLUSS artwork)


Pursuant with State of Ohio Revised Code 2923.126 (B), it is illegal to carry a firearm, deadly weapon, or dangerous substance inside the Duke Energy Convention Center. Unless otherwise authorized by law, no person shall knowingly posses, have under the person’s control, convey, or attempt to convey a deadly weapon or dangerous substance into the facility. A permit to carry a concealed weapon issued by this or any other state does not authorize the holder to carry or conceal weapons inside the DECC. Off-duty law enforcement officers and retired law enforcement officers who are qualified under federal Law H.R. 218., the Law Enforcement Officers Safety Act, and licensed protection professionals with prior approval, are permitted to have concealed weapons on premises. These authorized persons, who carry a concealed weapon to the DECC, are required to notify the DECC Security Manager and Event Manager prior to entering the DECC so their identification and facility location can be verified and accounted for.